2. Staff training and supervision, and Limitations of personal care versus health care services.


  • HCBS EBD Regulations

    HCBS EBD REGULATIONS
    8.489.20 GENERAL PERSONAL CARE RULES

    .21   – Personal care services shall include unskilled personal care as defined under INCLUSIONS for each personal care task listed in Section 8.489.30.

    .22  – EXCLUSIONS AND RESTRICTIONS
    1. Personal care services shall not include any skilled personal care, which must be provided as home health aide services or as nursing services under non-HCBS programs. These services as defined under EXCLUSIONS for each personal care task listed in Section 8.489.30, shall not be provided as personal care services under HCBS, regardless of the level of the training, certification, or supervision of the personal care employee.
    2. Personal care staff shall not perform tasks that are not included under INCLUSIONS for each personal care task listed in Section 8.489.30, or tasks that are not listed. For example, personal care staff shall not provide transportation services and shall not provide financial management services. Clients, family, or others may choose to make private pay arrangements with the provider agency for services that are not Medicaid benefits, such as companionship.
    3. The amount of personal care that is prior authorized is only an estimate, including estimated travel time. The prior authorization of a certain number of hours does not create an entitlement on the part of the client or the provider for that exact number of hours. All hours provided and reimbursed by Medicaid must be for covered services and must be necessary to meet the client’s needs.
    4. Personal care provider agencies may decline to perform any specific task, if the supervisor or the personal care staff feels uncomfortable about the safety of the client or the personal care staff, regardless of whether the task may be included in the INCLUSIONS section for the task.
    5. Family members shall not be reimbursed to provide only homemaker services. Family members must provide relative personal care in accordance with SECTION 8.485.200, LIMITATIONS ON PAYMENT TO FAMILY. Documentation of services provided must indicate that the provider is a relative.
    8.489.30 SPECIFIC PERSONAL CARE TASKS

    .31 – The specific personal care tasks shall be authorized and provided according to the following rules:

    A. BATHING Inclusions:

    Bathing is considered unskilled only when skilled skin care, skilled transfer, or skilled dressing, as described under EXCLUSIONS, is not required in conjunction with the bathing.

    Exclusions:

    Bathing is considered skilled when skilled skin care, skilled transfer or skilled dressing is required, as described under EXCLUSIONS for skin care at 8.489.31,B,2, XCLUSIONS for transfers at 8.489.31,K,2, or EXCLUSIONS for dressing at 8.489.31,G.2.

    B.  SKIN CARE Inclusions:

    Skin care is considered unskilled -only when skin is unbroken, and when any chronic skin problems are not active. Unskilled skin care must be of a preventive rather than a therapeutic nature, and may include application of non-medicated lotions and solutions, or of lotions and solutions not requiring a physician’s prescription; rubbing of reddened areas; reporting of changes to supervisor, and application of preventive spray on unbroken skin areas that may be susceptible to development of decubiti. Unskilled skin care does not include any of the care described under skilled skin care in the EXCLUSIONS section below.

    Exclusions:

    Skin care is considered skilled when there is broken skin or potential for infection due to a chronic skin condition in an active stage. Skilled skin care includes wound care, dressing changes, application of prescription medications, skilled observation and. reporting, but does not include use of sterile technique.

    C.  HAIR CARE Inclusions:

    Hair care is considered unskilled only when skilled skin care, transfer, or skilled dressing, as described under EXCLUSIONS -, is not required in conjunction with the hair care. Hair care under these limitations may include shampooing with non-medicated shampoo or shampoo that does not require a physician’s prescription, drying, combing and styling of hair.

    Exclusions:

    Hair care is considered skilled when skilled skin care, skilled transfer, or skilled dressing, as described under EXCLUSIONS for skin care at 8.489.313,2, EXCLUSIONS for transfers at 8.489.31,K,2, or EXCLUSIONS for dressing at 8.489.J 1,G,2, is required in conjunction with the hair care.

    D.  NAIL CARE Inclusions:

    Nail care is considered unskilled only when skilled skin care, as described under EXCLUSIONS, is not required in conjunction with the nail care; and only in the absence of any medical conditions that might involve peripheral circulatory problems or loss of sensation. Nail care under these limitations may include soaking of the nails, pushing back cuticles, and trimming and filing of nails.

    Exclusions:

    Nail care is considered skilled when skilled skin care, as described under EXCLUSIONS  for skin care at 8.489.31,B,2, is required in conjunction with the nail care; and in the presence of medical  conditions that may  involve  peripheral  circulatory  problems  or loss of sensation.

    E.  MOUTH CARE Inclusions:

    Mouth care is considered unskilled only when skilled skin care, as described under EXCLUSIONS, is riot required in conjunction with the mouth care. Mouth care under these limitations may include denture care and basic oral hygiene.

    Exclusions:

    Mouth care is considered skilled when skilled skin care, as described under EXCLUSIONS for skin care at 8.489.31, B ,2, is required in conjunction with the mouth care; or when there is injury or disease of the face, mouth, head or neck; or in the presence of communicable disease; or when the client is unconscious; or when oral suctioning is required.

    F.   SHAVING Inclusions:

    Shaving is considered unskilled only when skilled skin care, as described under EXCLUSIONS, is not required in conjunction with shaving; and only an electric razor may be used.

    Exclusions

    Shaving is considered skilled when skilled skin care, as described under EXCLUSIONS for skin care at 8.489.31, B ,2, is required in conjunction with shaving.

    G.  DRESSING Inclusions:

    Dressing is considered unskilled only when skilled skin care or skilled transfer, as described under EXCLUSIONS, is not required in conjunction with the dressing. Unskilled dressing may include assistance with ordinary clothing; application of support stockings of the type that can be purchased without a physician’s prescription; application of orthopedic devices such as splints and braces, or of artificial limbs, if considerable manipulation of the device or limb is not necessary, and if the client is fully trained in the use of the device or limb and is able to instruct the personal care staff.

    Exclusions:

    Dressing is considered skilled when skilled skin care or skilled transfer, as described under EXCLUSIONS for skin care at 8.489.313, 2 or EXCLUSIONS for transfers at 8.489.31,0, is required in conjunction with the dressing. Skilled dressing may include application of ant embolic or other pressure stockings that can be purchased only with a physician ‘s prescription; application of orthopedic devices such as splints and braces, or of artificial limbs, if considerable manipulation of the device or limb is necessary, or if the client is still learning to use the device or limb.

    H.   FEEDING Inclusions:

    Feeding is considered unskilled only when skilled skin care or skilled dressing, as described under EXCLUSIONS, is not required in conjunction with the feeding, and when oral suctioning is not needed on a stand-by or other basis. Unskilled feeding includes assistance with eating by mouth, using common eating utensils, such as forks, knives and straws.

    Exclusions:

    Feeding is considered skilled when skilled skin care or skilled dressing, as described under EXCLUSIONS for skin care at 8.489.313,2 or EXCLUSIONS for dressing at 8.489.31,0,2, is required in conjunction with the feeding, and when oral suctioning is needed on a stand-by or other basis. Syringe feeding is also considered skilled. Feeding is skilled if there is a high risk of choking that could result in the need for emergency measures like CPR or Heimlich maneuver.

    I. AMBULATION Inclusions:

    Assistance with ambulation is considered unskilled only when skilled transfers, as described under EXCLUSIONS, are not required in conjunction with the ambulation. In addition, when assisting a client with adaptive equipment, the client must be fully trained in the use of such equipment; and when assisting someone in a cast, there must be no need for observation and reporting to a nurse, and no need for skilled skin care, as described under EXCLUSIONS. Adaptive equipment may include, but is not limited to, gait belts, walkers, canes and wheelchairs.

    Exclusions:

    Assistance with ambulation is considered skilled when skilled transfers, as described under EXCLUSIONS for transfers at 8.489.31,K,2, are required in conjunction with the ambulation. In addition, when assisting a client with adaptive equipment, it is considered skilled if the client is still being trained in the use of such equipment; and assisting someone in a cast is considered skilled there is a need for observation and reporting to a nurse, or if there is a need for skilled skin care, as described under EXCLUSIONS for skin care at 8.489.31,B,2.

    J.   EXERCISES Inclusions:

    Assistance with exercises is considered unskilled only when the exercises are not prescribed by a nurse or other licensed medical professional. Unskilled assistance with exercise is limited to the encouragement of normal bodily movement, as tolerated, on the par: of the client. Personal care staff shall not prescribe nor direct any type of exercise program for the client.

    Exclusions:

    Assistance with exercises is considered skilled when the exercises are prescribed by a nurse or other licensed medical professional. This may include passive range of motion.

    K.   TRANSFERS Inclusions:

    Assistance with transfers is considered unskilled only when the client has sufficient balance and strength to assist with the transfer to some extent. Except for Hoyer lifts, adaptive equipment may be used in transfers, provided that the client is fully trained in the use of the equipment and can direct the transfer step by step. Adaptive equipment may include, but is not limited to, gait belts, wheel chairs, tub seats, and grab bars.

    Exclusions:

    Assistance with transfers is considered skilled when the client is unable to assist with the transfer. Use of Hoyer lifts is considered skilled, and use of other adaptive equipment is considered skilled if the client is still being trained in the use of the equipment.

    L. POSITIONING Inclusions:

    Positioning is considered unskilled only when the client is able to identify to the personal care staff, verbally, non-verbally or through others, when the position needs to be changed; and only when skilled skin care, as described under EXCLUSIONS, is not required in conjunction with the positioning.  Positioning may include imple alignment in bed, wheelchair, or other furniture.

    Exclusions:

    Positioning is considered skilled when the client is not able to identify to the caregiver when the position needs to be changed, and when skilled skin care, as described under EXCLUSIONS for skin care at 8.489.3 I, B, 2, is required in conjunction with the positioning.

    M.   BLADDER CARE Inclusions:

    Bladder care is considered unskilled only when skilled transfer or skilled skin care, as described under EXCLUSIONS, is not required in conjunction with the bladder care. Unskilled bladder care may include assisting the client to and from the bathroom; assistance with bed pans, urinals, and commodes; and changing of clothing and pads of any kind used for the care of incontinence. Emptying of Foley catheter bags or suprapubic catheter bags is considered unskilled only if there is no disruption of the closed system; the personal care staff must be trained to understand what constitutes disruption of the closed system.

    Exclusions:

    Bladder care is considered skilled whenever it involves disruption of the closed system for a Foley or suprapubic catheter, such as changing from a leg bag to a night bag. Care of external catheters is also considered skilled.

    N.   BOWEL CARE Inclusions:

    Bowel care is considered unskilled only when skilled transfer or skilled skincare, as described under EXCLUSIONS, is not required in conjunction with the bowel care. Unskilled bowel care may include assisting the client to and from the bathroom; assistance with bed pans and commodes; and changing of clothing and pads of any kind used for the care of incontinence.

    Emptying of ostomy bags and assistance with other client-directed ostomy care is unskilled only when there is no need for skilled skin care or for observation and reporting to a nurse.

    Exclusions:

    Bowel care is considered skilled when skilled transfer or skilled skin care, as described under EXCLUSIONS for transfers at 8.489.31, K, 2, or EXCLUSIONS for skin care at 8.489.3 LB-2. Is required in conjunction with the bowel care. Skilled bowel care includes digital stimulation and enemas. Skilled bowel care may include care of ostomies that are new and care of ostomies when the client is unable to self-direct the care, provided that sterile technique is not required.

    0. MEDICATION REMINDING
    Inclusions:

    Medication reminding is allowed as unskilled personal care only when medications have been preselected, by the client, a family member, a nurse, or a pharmacist, and are stored in containers other than the prescription bottles, such as medication minders.  Medication minder containers must be clearly marked as to day and time of dosage, and must be kept in such a way as to prevent tampering. Medication reminding includes only inquiries as to whether medications were taken, verbal  prompting  to take medications , handing the appropriately  marked  medication minder  container  to  the client, and opening  the appropriately  marked  medication minder container for the client if the client is physically unable to open the container. Medication reminding does not include taking the medication out of the container.

    These limitations apply to all prescription and all over the counter medications, including pm medications. Any irregularities noted in the preselected medications, such as medications taken too often or not often enough, or not at the correct time as marked on the medication minder container, shall be immediately reported by the personal care staff to a supervisor.

    Exclusions:

    Medication assistance is considered skilled care and consists of putting the medication in the client’s hand when the client can self-direct in the taking of medications.

    P.    RESPIRATORY CARE Inclusions:

    Respiratory care is not considered unskilled. However, personal care staff may clean or change the tubing for oxygen equipment, may fill the distilled water reservoir, and may temporarily remove and replace the cannula or mask from the client’s face for purposes of shaving or washing the client’s face. Adjustments of the oxygen flow are not    allowed.

    Exclusions:

    Respiratory care is skilled care, and includes postural drainage, cupping, adjusting oxygen flow within established parameters, and suctioning of mouth and nose.

    Q.   ACCOMPANYING Inclusions:

    Accompanying the client to medical appointments, banking  errands, basic household  errands, clothes shopping, and grocery shopping to the extent necessary and as specified on the care plan is considered unskilled, when all the care that is provided by the personal care staff in relation to the trip is unskilled personal care, as described in these regulations. Accompanying the client to other services is also permissible as specified on the care plan, to the extent of time that the client would otherwise receive personal care services in the home.

    Personal care for the purpose of accompanying the client shall only be authorized when a personal care provider is needed during the trip to provide one or more other unskilled personal care services listed in this Section. Accompanying the client primarily to provide companionship is not a covered benefit.

    Exclusions:

    Accompanying is considered skilled when any of the tasks performed in conjunction with the accompanying are skilled tasks. Accompanying does not include transporting the client.

    R.      HOMEMAKING

    Homemaking, as described at Section 8.490, HOMEMAKER SERVICES, may be provided by personal care staff, if provided during the same visit as unskilled personal care, as described in these regulations.

    S.       PROTECTIVE OVERSIGHT

    Inclusions:

    Protective oversight is considered unskilled when the client requires stand-by assistance with any of the unskilled personal care described in these regulations, or when the client must be supervised at all times to prevent wandering.

    Exclusions:

    Protective oversight for standby assistance with personal care tasks is considered skilled if any of the tasks performed are skilled tasks. Protective oversight to prevent wandering is considered skilled if any skilled personal care tasks are performed while providing oversight.

    .32 – Personal care services as described above may be used to provide respite care for primary care givers, provided that the respite care does not duplicate any care which the primary caregiver may be receiving payment to provide.

    8.489.40 CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR PERSONAL CARE SERVICES

    .41              – Personal care provider agencies shall conform to all general certification standards and procedures at Section 8.487, HCBS-EBD PROVIDER AGENCIES, and shall meet all the additional personal care certification requirements in this section.

    .42              – Personal care provider agencies shall assure and document that all personal care staff have received at least twenty hours of training, or have passed a skills validation test, in the provision of unskilled personal care as described above. Training, or skills validation, shall include the areas of bathing, skin care, hair care, nail care, mouth care, shaving, dressing, feeding, assistance with ambulation, exercises and transfers, positioning, bladder care, bowel care, medication reminding, homemaking, and protective oversight. Training shall also include instruction in basic first aid, and training in infection control techniques, including universal precautions. Training or skills validation shall be completed prior to service delivery, except for components of training that may be provided in the client’s home, in the presence of the supervisor.

    .43              – All employees providing personal care shall be supervised by a person who, at a minimum, has received the training, or passed the skills validation test, required of personal care staff, as specified above. Supervision shall include, but not be limited to, the following activities:

    1. Orientation of staff to agency policies and procedures.
    2. Arrangement and documentation of training.
    3. Informing staff of policies concerning advance directives and emergency procedures.
    4. Oversight of scheduling, and notification to clients of changes; or close communication with scheduling staff.
      1. Written assignment of duties on a client-specific basis.
      2. Meetings and conferences with staff as necessary.
      3. Supervisory visits to client’s homes at least every three months, or more often as necessary, for problem resolution, skills validation of staff, client-specific or procedure­ specific training of staff, observation of client’s condition and care, and assessment of client’s satisfaction with services. At least one of the assigned personal care staff must be present at supervisory visits at least once every three months.
        1. Investigation of complaints and critical incidents.

    I.  Counseling with staff on difficult cases, and potentially dangerous situations.

    1. Communication with the case managers, the physician, and other providers on the care plan, as necessary to assure appropriate and effective care.
      1. Oversight of record-keeping by staff.
  • Functions and duties of Personal Care Worker.

            PCA/PCW is an individual who has completed personal care training and is competent to perform assigned functions of personal care to the client in their residence. The essential functions of PCW could include working with other members of team, e.g. nurse, physician, dietician, physical therapist, speech therapist and social worker, client.

     QUALIFICATIONS:

     Must have completed personal care training program and competency.

    1. Have a sympathetic attitude toward the care of the sick and elderly.
    2. Ability to carry out directions, read and write.
    3. Maturity and ability to deal effectively with the demands of the job.

     RESPONSIBILITIES:  

    1. Assist clients with personal hygiene, including shower, tub or bed baths, oral care, hair and skin care.

    2. Assist clients in the use of toilet facilities, including bed pans.

    3. Assist clients in and out of bed, excluding the use of mechanical lifting equipment unless trained and documented as competent.

    4. Assist clients with walking, including the use of walkers and wheelchairs, when applicable.

    5. Assist clients with self-administration of medications.

    6. Meal preparation and feeding, when required.

    7. Assist with prescribed exercises when the client and the aide have been instructed by the appropriate health professional.

    8. Record and report changes in the client’s physical condition, behavior or appearance to supervisor or Case Coordinator.

    9. Documenting services delivered in accordance with facility policies and procedures.

    10. Maintain good relationship with clients, families and co-workers.

    11. Report any suspicions of abuse, whether physical or financial, to proper authorities as indicated in P&P Home Services.

    12. Perform job duties in safe and sanitary manner.

  • SPECIFIC CLEANING TASKS

    Remember To Follow Standard Precautions – Wear Gloves

    URINE STAIN REMOVAL
    Dried stains on Carpet or Upholstered   furniture:
    • Apply 1 teaspoon white vinegar mixed with 3 teaspoons warm water. Let dry.
    • Mix teaspoon of liquid dish washing soap in 1 cup water. Sponge on sparingly. Let dry.
    • Rinse and then repeat step 1 and rinse again.
    Wet stain on carpeting

    Sprinkle baking soda on the stain.

    Let dry, then vacuum.

    Cleaning Floors
    • Always sweep or vacuum first to remove base dirt and crumbs.
    • Use disinfectant if possible. Use the proper amount.
    • Change water when dirty.
    • Dispose by flushing down toilet. – Do not pour down kitchen sink!
    • Avoid getting floors too wet.
    • Wipe dry with clean cloth if requested.
    • Avoid waxing clients’ floors to minimize slipping.
    Dusting
    • Use clean cloths and appropriate product.
    • Remove all items on furniture and dust top.
    • Dust sides, legs of furniture, and rungs of chairs.
      • Return all items to their original places.
    Cleaning Appliances
    • To clean microwave interior, boil a cup of water in the microwave before you wipe it clean.
    • Use Windex type products to clean and shine exteriors of microwaves, stoves, and refrigerators.
    • If using an oven cleaner, read instructions thoroughly.
      • Place newspapers on floor in front of stove. WEAR GLOVES.
      • Carefully rinse oven interior and remove all traces of cleaner.
    Trash Cans
    • Fill with hot, soapy water. Scrub with long-handled brush.
    • Rinse with ammonia or bleach added to final rinse to eliminate odors.
    • Air-dry in sunshine if possible.
     LAUNDRY TECHNIQUES

    Clean clothes are important for good health and for making us feel and look good. You should wash clothes regularly, keeping in mind the care recipient’s routine and wishes, if possible. Make any repairs necessary, such as sewing buttons or hems, or replacing a zipper. This can be done whenever it is needed, but especially before washing them. Bed linens should be changed once a week and whenever soiled. If they are soiled, they should be washed as soon as possible. Assist the care recipient to have laundry that is clean to contribute to your their well-being.

    Laundry Hints:
    • Follow client instruction. Ask what the client prefers.
      • Read labels on items to be laundered.
      • Empty pockets. Close zippers and other fasteners.
      • Remove belts and non-washable ornamentation.
      • Read detergent instructions.

    Other Factors to Consider:  Size and age of item, and type of fabric

    General Sort/Laundry InstructionsWater Temp/Washer Cycle
    Heavily soiled –colorfast cyclePre-treat, hot water, regular
    Sturdy white -colorfastHot water, regular cycle
    Non-colorfast – dark colorsCold water, regular cycle
    Permanent pressWarm water regular cycle
    Delicate Items and knitsWarm water, gentle cycle

    Pre-treating/Stain Removal: Treat as soon as possible.  Some stains set when washed.

    Laundry/Guidelines:
    1. Presoak linens and clothing soiled with blood or bodily fluids in cold water. Wash separately.
    2. To launder linens, wash in hot water with detergent.
    3. Add one cup bleach to linens and white garments.
    4. Handle laundry as little as possible to avoid contamination of thl’air.
    5. Rinse in cold water rinse
    6. Rub gently
    7. May respond to pre-treat products like Resolve, Spray ‘n Wash or cold water/detergent solution
    8. Or, mix up a pre-wash spray with 1/3 Cup each: water, liquid detergent, and ammonia.
    9. Store in spray bottle with a label noting the contents.
    Blood, urine, and chocolate stains:
    Other stains:
    Caution:
    General Washing Guidelines:
    • Follow washer’s specific instructions. Do not overload.
    • Read detergent instructions for proper amount.
    • To minimize urine odor, use liquid Lysol and fabric softener or carefully use 1/4 to 1/2 cup chlorine bleach in wash water if appropriate for the item.
    • Wash shower curtains with 3 or 4 white towels on warm cycle with detergent and 1/2 cup bleach and add 1 cup vinegar to the Rinse cycle. Avoid the Spin cycle. Hang to dry.
    • If using fabric softener, pour softener into dispenser or dilute with water before adding to rinse water.
    Do not mix ammonia with bleach. The combination gives off a deadly gas.
     Washing Clothes
    1. Using the clothing labels, sort the clothes by:

    a)    Color: separate dark from light

    b)    Fabric: separate delicate from heavy duty

    c)    Soil: separate very dirty clothes

    d)    Dry Clean: separate from washables

    1. While sorting, check clothes for spots and stains, then pretreat.
    2. Fill machine with water and detergent (and bleach and fabric softener, when used). Add clothes, making sure not to overload.
    3. Move clothing to dryer. When dry, remove immediately from dryer to minimize wrinkling.
    Drying:
    • Separate items.
    • Read labels on items.
    • Do not overload.

    a)    High Setting – Sturdy, shrink-resistant cottons

    b)    Medium Setting – Permanent press and linens

    c)    Low or Fluff Setting – Delicates

    • Keep colorfast clothes separate from non-colorfast to avoid “bleed”.
    • Hang air-dry items prone to shrinkage, like wool & some cotton.
    • Ensure towels and other sturdy items have adequate drying time.
    • Hot items can misleadingly feel dry. Check them carefully.
    • Check with the client for preference on items such as polyester slacks or blouses.
    • Some prefer brief dryer time on permanent press/medium then put the item on hanger to air dry.
    • Remember to use fabric softener on sheets, if requested.
    • Fold items when they are hot to minimize wrinkling.
    Ironing:
    • Check label/iron instructions for proper temperature setting.
    • If in doubt, use lowest setting or test on area that won’t show.
    • Best results are achieved on slightly damp items.
    • For shirts and blouses – iron inside/out collars, cuffs, and facings first, front, back of shoulder, lengthwise body of shirt, sleeves – then finish off collars, cuffs again.
    • Iron pile fabrics (velvet, corduroy), dark fabrics, silks, rayon, linens, and wools on back side to avoid “shine” and retain qualities.
    • Do any ironing necessary and return clothes to drawers and closets.
    COORDINATION WITH EXTERNAL HOME CARE AGENCIES

    With the consent of the patient, the Agency coordinates patient services and shares patient information with outside health care agencies that are providing care and services to the Agency’s patient. Should the patient not agree to such coordination, the refusal will be documented in the patient’s record.

    These are agencies frequently coordinating with home care agencies

    • Meals on Wheels
    • Agency resource lists
    • Social worker, social services
    • Transportation: American Red Cross, RTD
    • Diagnosis specific associations (MS , Cancer )
    • Respite care, day care
    • Special libraries
    • Churches
    MANAGING A BUDGET

    As a family caregiver, you must be able to manage money in several different ways. This includes assisting the care recipient with paying bills, balancing a checkbook, and preparing & managing a household budget. You must be able to add and subtract. As the family caregiver you may need to help the care recipient with writing out bill payments accurately recording deposits and expenses (checks written) in a check register, and balancing the checkbook. Make sure the care recipient is aware of his/her financial situation when you assist with the balancing. You might have to assist the care recipient in setting up a household budget to follow, within available income. Keep in mind monthly expenses such as rent, utilities (electricity, water, gas), and telephone. There are other expenses to consider: food, clothing, cleaning supplies, personal supplies, insurance, car care and gas, health care, and house maintenance. A budget is a guideline for a person to follow every month and doesn’t really change from month to month. If the care recipient asks you to handle money, for buying groceries, etc., keep the receipts to show them. Return the proper amount of change to the care recipient.